It is crucial for children to develop a life-long love of reading. Reading consists of two dimensions: language comprehension and word reading. Language comprehension (necessary for both reading and writing) starts from birth. It only develops when adults talk with children about the world around them and the books (stories and non-fiction) they read with them, and enjoy rhymes, poems and songs together. Skilled word reading, taught later, involves both the speedy working out of the pronunciation of unfamiliar printed words (decoding) and the speedy recognition of familiar printed words. Writing involves transcription (spelling and handwriting) and composition (articulating ideas and structuring them in speech, before writing).

ELG: Comprehension 

Children at the expected level of development will: 

- Demonstrate understanding of what has been read to them by retelling stories and narratives using their own words and recently introduced vocabulary;

- Anticipate – where appropriate – key events in stories; 

- Use and understand recently introduced vocabulary during discussions about stories, non-fiction, rhymes and poems and during role-play.


ELG: Writing 

Children at the expected level of development will: 

- Write recognisable letters, most of which are correctly formed; 

- Spell words by identifying sounds in them and representing the sounds with a letter or letters; 

- Write simple phrases and sentences that can be read by others.

ELG: Word Reading 

Children at the expected level of development will: 

- Say a sound for each letter in the alphabet and at least 10 digraphs; 

- Read words consistent with their phonic knowledge by sound-blending; 

- Read aloud simple sentences and books that are consistent with their phonic knowledge, including some common exception words.